Environmental compensation is a policy instrument for the protection of the environment which works on the Polluter Pay Principal. Environmental compensation has already been implemented in various countries, although limited in scope. Experiences from these implementations are mixed and tend to stress the importance of certain principles in order to achieve the overall objective of protection of the environment.The Hon’ble National Green Tribunal through its various judgments has empowered the Central Pollution Control Board to lay down the methodology to assess and recover compensation for damage to the environment and utilize such amount in terms of an action plan for protection of the environment.An attempt has been made by the CPCB in-house Committee to develop a methodology for assessing environmental compensation to be levied on concerned industry, authority, individual etc. for the protection of environment. Expert institutions/ NGOs like The Energy and Resources Institute, Centre for Science and Environment-India, Institute of Economic Growth etc. were also consulted to finalize the report. Overall objective is to develop self-sense of responsibility towards the environment and to make defaulters realize their mistake by imposing compensation, which will be utilized for the protection/restoration of the environment. Although, this is the first attempt in India towards development of methodology for assessing environmental compensation, however, efforts have been made to simplifying the process so that regulatory institutions can easily adopt the methodology for implementation.